Performance Based Equipment Training

Een manier van training ontwerpen specifiek gemaakt technische trainingen.
Bij uitstek geschikt voor machine bouwers en bedrijven met technische producten die trainingen moeten ontwerpen en geven.
Hieronder een korte samenvatting.


Summary PBET


1.1 The 6 characteristics of PBET

  1. Derive performance objectives from analysis
  2. Identify prerequisite skills
  3. Derive course content from performance objectives
    Subject matter experts (SMEs) are key to the success of a training program, but are not the only source for course content
  4. Maximize hands-on practice
  5. Develop skill tests to measure competency
  6. Repeat practice and skill tests until mastery is achieved.
    Meaning acceptable level of performance, not necessarily 100 percent

1.2 Steps

1.2.1       Steps - Summary

  1.  Identify Need / Module:      Perform needs analysis
  2. Analyze Need / Module: 
    Perform task analysis, write performance objectives, and develop a skills hierarchy
  3. Design Course:
    Develop skills tests, describe relevant practice, analyze materials, select delivery method, summarize a PBET lesson, and complete a second PBET lesson plan
  4. Develop Course:
    Develop instructional materials
  5. Pilot Course:
    Describe trainer  characteristics and pilot a short PBET lesson
  6. Deliver Course:
    Describe trainer responsibilities, prepare a training curriculum checklist,  create an action plan for PBET implementation
  7. Evaluate Course:
    Describe evaluation levels
  8. Review

1.2.2 Identify

  • Identify a performance discrepancy
  • Identify a new performance standard
  • Identify a need for new product training (PBET)

Think about: customer’s expectations like delivery date, deliverables, budget, etc. -

Supplier requirements like time, access to experts, access to equipment, access to baseline data, cost, etc. Who has training needs, problems, or skill deficiencies? What is known about this person or group? What are the performance problems or needs? Who are the customers/performers in the training evaluation cycle? What are the performance (training) objectives? What are the criteria and conditions under which the performer will be evaluated for each training objective?

1.2.3   Analyze (the need)

  • Perform job/task analysis
  • Determine target audience
  • Derive performance objectives from analysis
  1. Terminal objectives
  2. Enabling objectives
  3. Prerequisite objectives
  • Develop a skills hierarchy

1.2.4   Design

  • Develop skill tests (skill check)
    Skill tests are written to match the requirements that are stated in corresponding performance objectives.
  • Describe relevant practice methods
  • Analyze supporting instructional and resource materials
  • Select delivery method and media
  • Summarize the lesson plans

1.2.5   Develop

  • Determine course content
  • Develop course materials
  • Develop instructional aids

Result = Participant guide, Instructor guide, Instructional aids, etc.

1.2.6   Pilot the course

  • Try out the course
  • Assess course performance
  • Revise the course

1.2.7   Deliver the course

  • Implement the training course - Participant Guide  (and optional a “train-the-trainer” program)
  • Orient and direct the trainers - Instructor Guide
  • Arrange practice and feedback = the course, instructor, course materials, and their general satisfaction

1.2.8   Evaluate

Traditionally, development steps or phases are referred to as ISD, Instructional System Design. Most ISD models follow a similar sequence but may use different terminology.

  • Develop evaluation system
  • Implement evaluation system
  • Interpret results and provide feedback
  • Continue to improve course


2.1.1        Identify PBET Characteristics

Every module has a performance objective. The performance objective is a clearly stated and measurable description of how participants will perform the intended activity or task. In other words, it describes what the participant is expected to do at the end of the module to demonstrate a desired level of understanding or competency in the specific skill covered.

This is based on front-end analysis

Performance objectives emerge from needs that are discovered during the analysis phase. Objectives are participant-oriented.

They help answer the question “How will I know if they can do it?

The answer is “When they can perform as stated in the objective.”

2.1.2       Perform Needs Analysis

OBJECTIVE: Working in teams use the needs analysis worksheet provided for this lesson to analyze a performance problem. Each team will work through the needs analysis process described in this module.

  1. Identify the performance need.
    To identify use: Observations, Interviews, Surveys/questionnaires, Performance data
  2. Identify the performance solution.


3.   Analyze

3.1.1       Perform Job/Task Analysis

  1. Gather and read all relevant documentation
  2. Interview and observe the expert performers
  3. Record the steps and decisions involved
  4. Look for hidden knowledge (small bits of information, prerequisite skills, concepts, rules, procedures, theory, techniques, or data which the expert may recall from memory)
  5. Flowchart the steps in the task
  6. Detail each step in the task
    Show the sequence of steps, the actions taken, and the results. It can be used to provide feedback to the participant to indicate the effect of the performance.
  7. List tools, materials, documents, etc.
  8. Perform the task

3.1.2       Performance Objectives   Performance

Performance tells what action will be performed.
Example = Calibrate a QM-500 mass flow controller.   Condition

Condition tells how or with what the action will be performed.
The condition describes the environment, location, and/or the situation where the performance is to occur, and it tells what materials, supplies, tools, equipment, and resources may be used while performing the objective.
Example = In a classroom the trainee will be provided with a mis-calibrated QM-500 MFC, hand tools, and appropriate test instruments.   Standard

Standard tells the performance standard, criterion, and measurement method.
The standard gives the acceptable level of performance ( standard of performance). It may be stated in terms of how accurate the performance must be, how many times it must be done, or how much time is allowed.
Example = The 10 steps of the calibration procedure must be performed in correct sequence according to Spec. No. 4.3.6 and completed within 30 minutes.

Result of a wordy performance objective =
Given a mis-calibrated QM-500 MFC, hand tools, and appropriate test instruments, the trainee will calibrate a QM-500 mass flow controller according to the 10-step procedure given in Spec. No. 4.3.6. The calibration must follow the correct sequence of steps, and be completed within 30 minutes.

An objective statement provides information that answers typical questions such as

  • Who is the performer?
  • What task is the performer expected to do?
  • How will the performance be evaluated?
  • How accurate must the performance be?
  • What are the conditions for performing the task?
  • What materials and resources will be needed?
  • When is the performance supposed to occur?
  • Where is the performance to occur?

DO USE: Action Words like state, operate, identify, construct, draw, write, describe, calibrate, etc.

DO NOT USE: Abstract Words like appreciate, know, understand, apply, knowledge, interest, awareness, etc.

3.1.3     Interpret/Develop Skills Hierarchies

Given a terminal objective for equipment training, develop a skills hierarchy of enabling objectives. Label objectives according to classification -- terminal, enabling, or prerequisite. Show the relationships to each one by drawing a skills hierarchy.

  • Prerequisite -- these objectives state what performers must have mastered before taking the course
  • Enabling -- these objectives are what the performers must master to “enable” or assist them to master the terminal objective
  • Terminal -- these objectives are the significant final or “terminal” outcomes of the training program


4.   Design

4.1.1       Design Skill Test

Norm-referenced approach (Despite failing the safety section, overall grade looks good)

Performance-based approach

A well-written skill test must be a good match to a well-written performance objective, which is accompanied by three important components:

  1. Performance requirement
  2. Conditions under which the performance is to occur
  3. Standard of performance must match the stated objective


4.1.2       Describe Relevant Practice

Given an objective in your area of expertise, write a description of relevant practice that includes a description of the following elements:

  • The activity trainees will be doing when practicing the performance
    = the activity performed based on the performance objective
    (This has been defined in a previous module.)
  • The conditions under which the practice activity is to occur
    = how, where, and with what the practice occurs
  • A feedback mechanism to inform your trainees how well they are doing
    = given during the practice, a way of letting course participants know how they are progressing
  • The type of modeling that will be used to demonstrate desired performance
    = a way of demonstrating the performance the course participants



  • Partial practice
    -- objective says “calibrate a vacuum system throttle valve”
    Partial practice would be to “describe how to calibrate a vacuum system throttle valve”
  • Disproportionate practice
    -- too little or too much practice; for example, objective says troubleshoot vacuum system  Plenty of practice on schematic tracing, but little time spent on actual vacuum leak detection methods
  • Misdirected practice
    -- when performers can rely on signals for the correct answers A wear pattern or an instructor’s reaction that signals the correct answer
  • Limited practice
    -- when practice is limited due to lack of operational equipment, lack of individualized practice, or only practice on diagnosis versus equipment

Best = Actual object; Alternative = Photos?


4.1.3       Select Relevant Content  = Analyze Materials

Technical manuals, Textbooks, Videotapes, Charts, Foils, Slides, Written procedures, Checklists, Brochures, …


4.1.4       Determine Content Delivery Method

  • Instructor-led lecture
  • Self-paced individualized instruction
  • Computer-based instruction
  • Computer-assisted instruction
  • Programmed instruction
  • One to one, peer training, on-the-job training
  • Group activity
  • Videotape
  • Interactive video
  • Multimedia


4.1.5       Plan a Lesson Introduction = Your Own PBET Lesson Plan

In summary:

  • What benefit will the lesson provide?
    What’s in it for the student?
  • How does this lesson support:
    The overall training course?
    A specific training program?
    A trainee’s understanding or skills?
    A specific task, job, career, etc.?

In this part of the lesson summary, explain how you will follow through the four basic steps of the PBET training process, including; (1) explaining the objective, (2) modeling the performance, (3) relevant practice, and (4) the skill test.


5.   Develop

Develop Instructional Materials

  • Checklists and instructions
  • Flipchart
  • Drawings
  • Job aids
  • Participant’s guide
  • Photographs
  • Slides
  • Animations
  • Other resources


6.    Pilot & Polish

All PBET training courses need a tryout or pilot before the courses are delivered.
The pilot is the first opportunity to try out the efforts from the earlier PBET phases.

Pay attention to:

  • Content
  • Sequence
  • Clarity
  • Comprehension
  • Accuracy
  • Relevance
  • Training medium
  • Practice exercises
  • Participation and activity levels
  • Time and length

7.   Deliver

Deliver the PBET training!

8.   Evaluate

OBJECTIVE: Given evaluation characteristics, identify all four levels of evaluation correctly.

Determines the effectiveness and relevance of the equipment training program

Obtains feedback from customers relating to the appropriateness and effectiveness of the training program Donald Kirkpatrick’s Four Levels of Evaluation

8.1    Level 1 - measures participant’s reactions

  • Captures participant’s first reactions to training
  • Evaluation sheets check course material, information, instructor, setting, etc.
  • Sometimes referred to as “smile sheets” or course satisfaction sheets because they gauge participant reaction  (Standard form)

8.2    Level 2 - measures participant’s learning

  • Can be a written test, demonstration, or simulation that tests participants’ skills/ knowledge against course objectives
  • Can take the form of simulation, demonstration, or written or hands-on test
  • Skill tests used in PBET
  •  Sometimes called a test, skill check, evaluation, pretest, posttest, etc.

8.3    Level 3 - measures application of learning

  • Conducted at the participants’ work site a few months after training.
    Determines if participants are using their new skills.
  • Is accomplished by observation and/or interviews/assessments from participant, supervisors, and perhaps customers
    = Three to four months after the training, a Level 3 evaluation is accomplished either by observation or through interviews/ assessments from the participant, the supervisors, and perhaps the customers.

8.4    Level 4 - measures return on investment

  • Searches for training impact and value
  • Looks for cost benefits in terms of business results (ROI)
  • What is the impact to the company in terms of:

·         • Time saved?

·         • Improved productivity?

·         • Improved efficiency?

·         • $$ saved?